History Of Bursa
The precise findings in the Hisar region of the city’s core date back to between 2500 and 2700 BCE. However, excavations at Akcalar Aktopraklik revealed that the ancient civilization areas within the borders of the province of Bursa date back to 8500 years. Prior to the establishment of the Bithynia State in the fourth century B.C the Bursa region was ruled by various colonies and nations. According to the famous historian Herodotus, Cius (Gemlik), which was founded in the 12th century BCE, was the only city in and around Bursa at the time. It is believed that Apamea (Mudanya) was established in the 10th century BCE. Apollonia (Golyaz), situated on an island in Lake Uluabat, was likely founded prior to the sixth century BCE.
Later, the region of Bursa, which had been ruled by the Lydians during the reign of Croesus/Kroisos (561-546 B.C.), fell under Persian control. During these wars, the region is severely ravaged. Meanwhile, Greek immigrants arrived in the region and settled on the Marmara Sea’s shores. The Kadikoy-based Republic of Chalchedon attacks and obliterates Bursa and its environs. In the Bursa region, Dedalses fought against the Persians and established an independent Bithynia State.
Bursa, particularly in the first 200 years of Ottoman rule, showed great development compared to other cities; the city expanded to the west and east, outside the fortress, and was decorated with many architectural structures, and became the empire’s capital until Edirne was conquered and made the capital in 1365. Bursa has always been respected and valued as Anatolia’s capital, even after Edirne and later Istanbul became the capital.
In the early 1900s, the Bursa region was part of Hudavendigar Province. The city’s municipality was established in 1877. Turkey was occupied by the Allied Powers during the period when the Ottoman Empire began to crumble following World War I. When the Greeks took over Bursa on July 8, 1920, the soldiers tasked with protecting the city were unable to do so due to a lack of weapons and ammunition. The occupation of the city is causing great sadness not only in Bursa, but throughout the country. Until Bursa is liberated from enemy occupation, a black cloth is draped over the lectern in Ankara. After 2 years, 2 months, and 2 days of occupation, the city was liberated on September 11, 1922.
The fact that the majority of the immigrants arriving from the Balkans after the occupation do not speak Turkish and bring with them different traditions and cultures creates a variety of serious problems for Bursa. Bursa, like all other provinces in the brand new Turkish Republic founded by Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, heals quickly, overcomes social and cultural problems, and develops. The Republican administration was successful in transforming a burned and destroyed Bursa into a modern city in a short period of time. Silk factories are reopened, and a major zoning breakthrough occurs in both the city center and the districts and villages. Bursa, which defended the republican revolutions, grew rapidly and rose to become the country’s fourth largest city.
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